Thursday, November 26, 2015

Simple and Accurate LC Meter Circuit - 16F690

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Simple and Accurate LC Meter - 16F690
Digital LC Meter

A LCR meter [Inductance (L), Capacitance (C), and Resistance (R)] is a piece of electronic test equipment used to measure the inductance, capacitance and, resistance of a component. Inductance is the property of an electrical circuit causing voltage to be generated proportional to the rate of change in current in a circuit. In Electronics, capacitance is the ability of a body to hold an electrical charge. Capacitance is also a measure of the amount of electrical energy stored (or separated) for a given electric potential. The electrical resistance of an electrical element measures its opposition to the passage of an electric current. The meter reads L, C and R directly with no human calculation required.

Recently I found this LC meter project on internet and I was looking for that kind of project. Therefore, I build. Amazing it is work! Also the accuracy of this LC meter is great and it is very easy to build. So that, I post it here, because I think it is useful to you. You can visit original post from using this link: LMC3

The data below were determined based on theoretical calculations, the scale and the display automatically change.

Min Max Resolution Accuracy
Non Polar Condenser 1pF 1nF 0.1pF 1%

1nF 100nF 1pF  1%

100nF 1uF  1nF 2.5%
Electrolytic Capacitor 100nF 100,000uF 1nF 5%
Inductor 10nH 20H 10nH 5%
Resistance 1mΩ 0.5Ω 1mΩ 5% 
Inductance 0.5Ω 30Ω 10mΩ 10%
Specifications of the LC Meter


Simple and Accurate LC Meter Circuit
LC Meter Diagram


LC Switch:
The purpose of this is, switch between inductance and capacitance mode. When you turn on the LC meter, you should set it to C mode.

Calibration Switch:
You can calibrate LC meter by pressing this. See Calibration for more details.

LC Meter Calibration

You have 3 modes to calibrate. When the process is completed, calibrated values are saving to the microcontroller’s internal EEPROM, so of course they are available after the re-start.

C Calibration
  1. Switch on
  2. Switch L/C switch to C position
  3. Leave the test probes freely. Do not even touch it
  4. Press and hold the CALIB button until the message Switch to meas. Then release the button
  5. Wait for the appearance of 0.00 pF
L Calibration
  1. Switch on
  2. Switch to the L position
  3. Connect L/C probe and GND probe together
  4. Press and hold the CALIB button until the message Switch to meas. Then release the button
  5. Wait for the appearance of 0.00 uH
ESR Calibration
  1. Switch on
  2. Switch to the C position
  3. Connect LE probe and GND probe together
  4. Press and hold the CALIB button until the message Switch to meas. Then release the button
  5. Note the value shown on the screen
Calibration Values
  • F0 = 499.9k
  • Fcal = 355.9k
  • Re = 180Ω
  • Uesr0 = 58.3mV
  • Fesr = 83.6k
  • Rx = 0mΩ [-5mΩ to 5mΩ]

Critical Components

All the below resistors are 1%.
(In my circuit, I used normal resistors and those are measured using digital multimeter)

  • 47Ω - R11
  • 47kΩ - R8
  • 100kΩ - R3-R5
  • 1nF - C8, C11 (Polypropylene or Polyester)
  • 33nF - C10 (Polypropylene 275V AC)
  • 10uF - C7, C9 (Tantalum)
  • 100uH - L1 (Low-loss DC resistance of 0.3-0.4Ω)

Testing


Simple and Accurate LC Meter Circuit - 16F690 test c
check 22pF ceramic capacitor

Simple and Accurate LC Meter Circuit - 16F690 test e
check 100uF electrolytic capacitor

Simple and Accurate LC Meter Circuit - 16F690 test l
check 100uH inductor

I was unable to find a reed relay, so I put 5v ordinary relay temporarily. In addition, my PCB designed for the TL2285 switches. But, I bought TL2230 by mistake :)

If the back-light brightness is low, you can increase back-light brightness by decreasing the value of the resistor R2 to 470Ω - 1k. You can change display contrast by adjusting 10k preset.
For PCB, Schematic and hex file, click download button.

You must discharged capacitors properly before measuring.

Monday, November 23, 2015

MikroC Programming Guide

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PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C
Microcontroller Programmer

The purpose of this post is to provide basic information that one needs to know in order to be able to use microcontrollers successfully in practice. This post, therefore, doesn’t contain any super interesting program or device schematic with amazing solutions. Instead, the following examples are better proof that program writing is neither a privilege nor a talent issue, but the ability of simply putting puzzle pieces together using directives. Rest assured that design and development of devices mainly consists of the ‘test-correct-repeat’ work. Of course, the more you are in it, the more complicated it gets since the puzzle pieces are put together by both children and first-class architects.

Copyright © 1998–2012. MikroElektronika. All rights reserved. All trade and/or services marks mentioned are the property of their respective owners.

4.0 TABLE OF CONTENTS

Wednesday, November 18, 2015

Programmable Digital Seven Segment Timer Circuit - 16F628

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Programmable Digital Timer Circuit
Seven Segment Timer


A timer is a specialized type of clock for measuring time intervals. By function, timers can be categorized to two main types. Those are Counts upwards and counts downward.

Timers originally designed to fulfill a need in industry for a means of keeping time on certain devices. Originally, these timers were mechanical devices and used clockwork mechanisms as a means of keeping a regular time. The invention of two electromechanical timer designs allowed for more precise time measurement. The first uses the principle of heat expansion to increase the temperature of a metal finger made of two different metals with differing rates of thermal expansion. As electric current flows through the metal, it begins to heat and one side expands more quickly than the other does, which in turn, moves the electrical contact away from an electrical switch contact. The second uses a small AC motor, which turns at a predetermined rate due to the application of an alternating current.

Finally, digital timers invented. Digital logic circuits are now so cheap that it has become a better investment to buy a digital timer than a mechanical or electromechanical timer. Individual timers implemented with single chip circuits.

This is a very simple adjustable digital timer circuit based on the PIC16F628A microcontroller and it can be programmed to schedule the on and off operation of an electrical appliance. This timer consists of three parts: power supply, control circuit and display. Working voltage of the circuit is 5v - 12v. It depends on the relay voltage. If you use 5v relay then you can omitted the LM7805 regulator IC and apply 5v directly. Otherwise, you have to use regulator IC and apply suitable voltage according to the relay voltage. The schematic is very simple and accurate of the circuit is very good. PIC use its internal oscillator.

Programmable Digital SSD Timer Circuit - PIC16F628A
Programmable Digital Timer Schematic


There are two versions of hex file are available. Those are "4dg_tmr_min.hex" and "4dg_tmr_hr.hex". The first file for the minute timer. It display minutes and seconds. Adjustable time is 1 second to 60 minutes. Other hex file for hourly timer and its adjustable time is 1 minute to 24 hours. This will display hours and minutes on the seven segments.

Configuration

If the time runs too fast or too slow, you can able to adjust the speed by changing the value of Eeprom address 0. Default value is 44 (0x2c). Typical value is 59 (0x3B). Maximum is 255 (0xFF). In repeat mode delay time before restart the timer, determine by value of Eeprom address 3. Default value is 10 (0x0A). Maximum is 255 (0xFF). See below picture for more details.

Programmable Digital Timer Circuit configuration
Eeprom Configuration

Operation of the timer

This circuit uses 5 push buttons to control the their functions.
  • START/PAUSE: When the timer is on, the device is in pause condition even the switch was in closed position. Pressing this button, you can switch between the start and pause timer.
  • FOR/BACKWARD: This allows you to select counter mode. Either upwards or count down.
  • REPEAT: When the timer reaches 00:00, it starts again from previous value you set.
  • LEFT/RIGHT: This allows you to change values on display. The selected digit is incremented by pressing those buttons and values on the display are stored to the Eeprom.

Now connect device you want to operate, through the relay. Set the desired time using left and right buttons and press start. When the timer reaches 00:00, relay will activate.

Sunday, November 8, 2015

Digital LCD Speedometer and Odometer Circuit - 16F628

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speedo odometer
Speedometer


In my previous post, I explained how to build a simple speedometer circuit using a micro-controller and seven segments. Read it from here. This is a further development of that circuit. This circuit indicates both speed and distance.

A speedometer or a speed meter is an instrument that measures and displays the instantaneous speed of a vehicle. An odometer or odograph is an instrument that indicates distance traveled by a vehicle.

speedo odometer circuit
Speedometer + Odometer Circuit


For this circuit I used PIC16F628A micro-controller and 16x2 LCD. You can able to see speed in first line and distance in second line on the LCD. Distance will update every 100 meters and speed updates every one second. Value of distance writes to Eeprom in every 1 km. I also added a button to this circuit. The purpose is, reset the distance to zero.

Same as the Speedometer Circuit, micro-controller count the signals received to RA4 pin and then calculate speed and distance, then display information on LCD. 8 MHz resonator is use to generate clock signals. However, you can always use crystal for it and make sure to add 22pf ceramic capacitors if you use crystal oscillator.

Measure the radius of the wheel and enter it to Eeprom address 0x00. Default value for radius is 30cm (0x1E). I used two magnets to operate reed switch. Please refer my previous post for more details and circuit connection.

Maximum speed is 999 kmh
Maximum distance is 9999 km
Supply voltage is 5v

Friday, November 6, 2015

Digital Seven Segment Speedometer Circuit - 16F628

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speedometer1
Speedometer

How Electronic Speedometers Work

In Electronic speedometer, small magnets attached to the vehicle's rotating drive shaft sweep past tiny magnetic sensors (either reed switches or Hall-effect sensors) positioned nearby. Each time the magnets pass the sensors, they generate a brief pulse of electric current. An electronic circuit counts how quickly the pulses arrive and converts this into a speed, displayed electronically on the display. Since the circuit is measuring the number of wheel rotations, it can also keep a count of how far you have traveled, doubling-up as an odometer (distance-measuring meter). Electronic speedometers can also display speeds with analog pointers and dials, just like traditional eddy-current speedos: in that case, the electronic circuit drives a highly controllable electric motor (called a stepper motor) that rotates the pointer through an appropriate angle. Electronic speedometers are more reliable and compact than mechanical ones and the motion sensors can be any distance from the display that shows you your speed, making them suitable for any kind of vehicle!


electronic speedometer
1. A magnet connected to one of the wheels rotates at high speed.

2. Every time it makes one complete revolution, it passes a magnetic sensor and the field from the magnet triggers the sensor.

3. A circuit translates them into your instantaneous speed and distance traveled.

4. A digital display displaying the speed and distance.


Here I will show you how to build simple yet accurate digital speedometer circuit using just a single IC, seven segments and a few external passive components. The design can be used for all vehicles for indicating their speeds.

ssd speedometer circuit
Speedometer Circuit

The main component of this circuit is PIC16F628A. It count signals receive to RA4, then calculate speed and display it on seven segment. A Reed switch used to sense the speed. If the brightness of seven segments is too much, add 220 – 330 Ohms resistors between PORTB and the display. There are two version of hex files are available. In v1 micro-controller use its internal oscillator and v2 used external 4MHz oscillator.

Measure the radius of the wheel and enter it to Eeprom address 0x00. Default value for radius is 30cm (0x1E). You can change update interval by changing the value of Eeprom address 0x01. Default value is 20 (0x14). To increase the sensitivity in this circuit I used two magnets.


speedometer eeprom settings
Eeprom Settings


Maximum Speed is 999 Kmh
Maximum Radius is 255 cm
Supply voltage is 5v


speedometer connection
Circuit Connection

Thursday, November 5, 2015

Simple LED Light Meter Circuit - LB1403

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Light Meter


A light meter is a device having a light sensor at one end and a window at the other end which displays the reading that indicates the current light conditions. Light meters are often used in the fields of cinematography, photography and also in test cricket in order to determine the optimum light level for a scene.

Using LB1403 IC and LDR, we can able to build a cheap light meter. LEDs are used to observe the current light conditions and variable resistor is used for adjust the sensitivity. If the LEDs are too bright, change R1 value (220 - 470 ohms). Supply voltage is 6 - 12V.

Simple LED Light Meter Circuit - LB1403
Light Meter Schematic

Wednesday, November 4, 2015

Simple Automatic Brightness Control Circuit

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Automatic Brightness Control

Automatic Brightness Control is the automatic adjustment of the exposure factors such as mA and V. ABC is used to keep the brightness of the display or bulb at a constant level. It involves the adjustment of the V and mA automatically depending on the part of the anatomy being examined. This can be achieved using a LDR, for instance, which monitors the ambient light and change its resistance this resistance changing use to adjust the V, the mA (or both) accordingly.

Automatic Brightness Control Circuit
Automatic Brightness Control Circuit

This simple auto brightness adjusting circuit composed with a LDR. The LDR connected with the Base pin of the PNP transistor. By the LDR feature that its resistance changes with the ambient light, the voltage of Base change. When the ambient light is bright, the resistance of LDR is low, and the voltage of Base is reducing and the ambient light is low, the resistance of LDR is high, and the voltage of Base is rising. Then the output voltage of transistor is changing. The variable resistor is use to adjust the sensitivity of circuit. Supply voltage for this circuit is 12v.

Light Dependent Resistors (LDR)


Light Dependent Resistor
A Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) is a resistor that changes in value according to the light falling on it. An LDR commonly has a high resistance in the dark, and a low resistance in the light.

 

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